Skip to main content


A collection of articles and papers from Fetcch.


· 12 min read

You can get away through any protocol conversation in crypto by saying "But its not composable bro" like you did when you just added zk to the bio or name of your project at the start of 2023 but like everything interesting but overhyped Composability is just known and there is a chasm of difference between knowing and understanding something.

· 14 min read


In the rapidly changing world of the Web3 ecosystem, a variety of blockchains and layer solutions have come up, each with its own way of ensuring security and trust. This multi-chain setup, driven by the ongoing challenge of scalability, is more than just a trend—it's a new reality that's here to stay.

However, as these different blockchains continue to grow, they face a common problem - they work in isolation, unable to talk to each other natively. This is where interoperability becomes important. At the heart of this interoperability are cross-chain bridges: smart systems that act as connectors. They help in the smooth transfer of different kinds of data – from assets and contract activations to proofs and state changes – across different blockchain networks. In this article, we will explore the details of these bridges, the complexities in their design, and what the future holds for them.

· 8 min read

39.png Solana stands out in the blockchain space with its unique approach to data storage and transaction execution. In Solana, all data are stored in accounts, and programs are designed to be stateless, interacting with accounts to manage state. This architectural choice is pivotal in allowing Solana to optimize the utilization of available resources and enhance transaction processing efficiency.

· 14 min read


In the ever-evolving world of blockchain, various ecosystems have emerged, each offering unique propositions and enhancements. These ecosystems are pivotal for reshaping the way we perceive and handle financial transactions, especially in the payments. A careful examination of their capabilities and trade-offs is crucial for understanding their real-world applications and implications.

· 11 min read

The primary objective of this post is to illustrate that tokens held on various blockchain networks through different bridges exhibit distinct security profiles and values, despite the fact that their purpose is to represent the same underlying assets.

· 31 min read


The history of tech shows us that improving user experience is always a top priority. We can see this in how Web2 user interfaces have changed over time to make things easier for users. In the beginning, people used Command Line Interfaces (CLI) where they had to know exact commands to make things work. This could be tricky. Then, Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) came along with pictures like icons and windows, making things more user-friendly. And it didn't stop there. The next big thing was Natural User Interfaces, which let people use touch, voice, or hand movements to interact with their devices. This made using tech feel even more natural and simple.

· 11 min read



In the rapidly evolving world of Web3, two critical challenges have emerged: privacy and scalability. The immutable nature of blockchain raises concerns about data privacy for users and businesses, while the increasing popularity of Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) adds worries about surveillance.

At the same time, achieving scalability in blockchain networks has become vital to handle growing transaction volumes. Amidst these challenges, Zero-Knowledge (ZK) payments offer a promising solution that addresses both privacy and scalability concerns. This blog explores how ZK payments bridge the gap between confidentiality and transparency in Web3 transactions, providing users with the privacy they need without compromising the blockchain's fundamental features. Moreover, it delves into the potential of ZK-based protocols to enhance scalability, making decentralized applications more practical and accessible.

· 8 min read

Conventional payment service providers (PSPs) and networks facilitating web3 payments (5).png

What is account abstraction?#

Before understanding account abstraction. first let’s understand what are accounts on Ethereum.

There are two types of accounts on Ethereum: EOAs (externally owned accounts) and Contract accounts (CAs or smart contracts). EOAs are regular accounts controlled by private keys. Having the key grants access to Ethereum actions, while losing it means no access. All actions, including transactions and interacting with smart contracts, need EOA initiation. This limits user-friendliness for tasks like batch transactions and needing enough ETH for gas. Smart contracts are code-based accounts, not controlled by users, executing when triggered by EOAs or other smart contracts. Flexibility exists, but EOAs must initiate all actions.